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2021MBA英语二真题答案及解析-博雅汇MBA
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【收藏版】2021MBA《英语二》真题答案及解析-博雅汇MBA
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Section I  Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

It's not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder, __1__ to understand their negative consequences. Most work-related behaviors have multiple components. __2__ one and others become distorted.

Travel on a London bus and you'll __3__ see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are they carefully inspected? Never. Do people get on without paying? Of course!Are there inspectors to __4__ that people have paid? Possibly, but very few. And People who run for the bus? They are__5__. How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently a cyclists.

Why? Because the target is __6__. People complained that buses were late and infrequent. __7__, the number of buses and bus lanes were increased, and drivers were __8__ or punished according to the time they took. And drivers hit their targets. But they_9_ hit cyclists. If the Target was changed to __10__, you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more __11__ drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would beat the expense of time.

There is another __12__: people became immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you__13__ that you can leave on a flight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwinds? Of course not! Airlines have simply changed the time a__14__ is meant to take. A one-hour flight is now billed as a two-hour flight.

The __15__ of the story is simple. Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well_16_ others. Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a __17__. Setting targets can and does have unforeseen negative consequences.

This is not an argument against target-setting. But it is an argument for exploring consequences first. All good targets should have multiple criteria __18__ critical factors such as time, money, quality and customer feedback. The trick is not to __19__ just one or even two dimensions of the objective, but also to understand how to help people better __20__ the objective.

 1. [A] therefore         [B] again       [C] moreover         [D] however

 2. [A] identify           [B] assess      [C] emphasize        [D] explain

 3. [A] curiously        [B] quickly     [C] eagerly             [D] nearly

 4. [A] check           【B] prove        [C] recall            [D] claim

 5. [A] threatened      [B] mocked      [C] ignored        [D] blamed

 6. [A] hospitality      [B] competition [C] punctuality  [D] innovation

 7. [A] Yet                 [B] Besides      [C] Still              [D] So

 8. [A] rewarded       [B] trained         [C] grouped      [D] hired

 9. [A] rather             [B] also            [C] suspicious [D] only

10. [A] comfort        [B] efficiency    [C] security [D] revenue

11. [A] cautious        [B] quiet           [C] diligent [D] friendly

12. [A] purpose         [B] prejudice    [C] policy [D] problem

13. [A] revealed        [B] noticed      [C] admitted [D] reported

14. [A] break           [B] departure      [C] transfer [D] trip

15. [A] form            [B] background     [C] style    [D] moral

16. [A] sacrifice      [B] criticize        [C] tolerate         [D] interpret

17. [A] secret           [B] cost              [C] product        [D] task

18. [A] relating to     [B] calling for     [C] accounting for [D]leading to

19. [A] predict           [B] restore          [C] specify     [D] create

20. [A] review            [B] achieve       [C] present      [D] modify

 

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

 

Text 1

"Reskilling" is something that sounds like a buzzword but is actually a requirement if we plan to have a future in which a lot of would-be workers do not get left behind. We know we are moving into a period where the jobs in demand will change rapidly, as will the requirements of the jobs that remain. Research by the World Economic Fortune finds that on average 42 percent of the"core skills" within job roles will change by 2022.That is a very short timeline.

 The question of who should pay for their reskilling is a thorny one. For individual company companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills are no longer in demand and replace them with those whose skills are. That does not always happen. AT&T  is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy. Other companies had also pledged to create their own plans. When the skills mismatch is in the broader economy, though, the focus usually turns to government to handle. Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers, even at times and in regions where unemployment is high.

With the pandemic,unemployment is very high indeed. In February, United States were at generational low and worker shortages were everywhere. As of May, those rates had spiked up to 13.3 per cent and 13.7 per cent,and although many worker shortages had disappeared, not all had done so. In the medical field, to take an obvious example, the pandemic meant that there were still clear shortages of doctors,nurses and other medical personnel.

Of course, it is not like you can take an unemployed waiter and train him to be a doctor in a few weeks. But even if you cannot close that gap, may be you can close others, and doing so would be to the benefit of all concerned. That seems to be the case in Sweden: When forced to furlough 90 per cent of their cabin staff, Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff. The efforts was a collective one and involved other companies as well as a Swedish University.


 

21. Research by the World Economic Forum suggests_________.

A. an urgent demand for new job skills  

B. an increase in full-time employment 

C. a steady growth of job opportunities

D. a controversy about the “core skills”

 

22.AT&T is cited to show_________.

A. the characteristics of reskilling programs

B. the importance of staff appraisal standards

C. an immediate need for government support

D. an alternative to the fire-hire strategy

 

23. Efforts to resolve the skills mismatch in Canada_________.

Ahave appeared to be insufficient

Bhave driven up labour costs

Chave proved to be inconsistent

Dhave met with fierce opposition

 

24. We can learn from Paragraph 3 that there was__________.

Aa sign of economic recovery

Ba call for policy adjustment

Ca change in hiring practices

Da lack of medical workers

 

25. Scandinavian Airlines decided to __________.

Acreate jobs vacancies for the unemployed

Bretrain their cabin staff for better services

Cprepare their laid-off workers for other jobs

Dfinance their staff's college education

 

 

Text 2

With the global population predicted to hit close to 10 billion by 2050, and forecasts that agricultural production in, some regions will need to nearly double to keep pace, food security is increasingly making headlines. In the UK, it has become a big talking point recently too, for rather particular reason: Brexit.

Brexit is seen by some as an opportunity to reverse a recent trend towards the UK importing food. The country produces only about 60 percent of the food it eats, down from almost three-quarters in the late 1980s. A move back to self-sufficiency, the argument goes, would boost the farming industry, political sovereignty and even the nation’s health. Sounds great—but bow feasible is this vision?

According to a report on UK food production from the University of Leeds, UK, 85 per cent of the country's total land area is associated with meat and dairy production. That supplies 80 per cent of what is consumed, so even covering the whole country in livestock farms wouldn't allow us to cover all our meat and dairy needs.

There are many caveats to those figures, but they are still grave. To become much more self-sufficient, the UK would need to drastically reduce its consumption of animal foods, and probably also farm more intensively—meaning fewer green fields, and more factory-style production.

But switching to a mainly plant-based diet wouldn't help. There is a good reason why the UK is dominated by animal husbandry: most of its terrain doesn't have the right soil or climate to grow crops on a commercial basis. Just 25 percent of the county's land is suitable for crop-growing, most of which is already occupied by arable fields. Even if we converted all the suitable land to fields of fruit and veg—which would involve taking out all the nature reserves and removing thousands of people from their homes—we would achieve only a 30 percent boost in crop production.

 Just 23 percent of the fruit and vegetables consumed in the UK are currently home-grown, so even with the most extreme measures we could meet only 30 percent of our fresh produce needs. That is before we look for the space to grow the grains, sugars, seeds and oils that provide us with the vast bulk of our current calorie intake.

 

26.Some people argue that food self-sufficient in UK would__________.

Abe hindered by its population ground

Bbecome a priority of government

Cpose a challenge to its farming industry

Dcontribute to the nation's well-being

27.The report by the university of Leeds shows that in the UK______.

Afarmland has been inefficiently utilized

Bfactory-style production needs reforming

Cmost land is used for meat and dairy production

Dmore green fields will be converted for farming

28.Crop-growing in the UK is restricted due to__________.

Aits farming technology

Bits dietary tradition

Cits natural conditions  

Dits commercial interests

29.It can be learned from the last paragraph that British people__________.

Arely largely on imports for fresh produce 

Benjoy a steady rise in fruit consumption

Care seeking effective ways to cut calorie intake

Dare trying to grow new varieties of grains

30.The author's attitude to food self-sufficient in the UK is__________.

Adefensive

Bdoubtful

Ctolerant

Doptimistic

 

 

 

Text 3

When Microsoft bought task management app Wunderlist and mobile calendar Sunrise in2015, it picked up two newcomers that were attracting considerable buzz in Silicon Valley. Microsoft's own Office dominates the market for "productivity" software, but the start-ups represented a new wave of technology designed from the ground up for the smartphone world.

Both apps, however, were later scrapped after Microsoft said it had used their best features in its own products. Their teams of engineers stayed on, making them two of the many acquirers" that the biggest companies have used to feed their insatiable hunger for tech talent.

To Microsoft's critics, the fates of Wunderlist and Sunrise are examples of a remorseless drive by Big Tech to chew up any innovative companies that lie in their path. "They bought the seedlings and closed them down," complained Paul Arnold, a partner at San Francisco-based Switch Ventures, putting paid to businesses that might one day turn into competitors. Microsoft declined to comment.

Like other start-up investors, Mr Arnold’s own business often depends on selling start-ups to larger tech companies, though he admits to mixed feelings about the result: “I think these things are good for me, if I put my selfish hat on. But are they good for the American economy? I don't know”

The US Federal Trade Commission says it wants to find the answer to that question. This week, it asked the five most valuable US tech companies for information about their many small acquisitions over the past decade. Although only a research project at this stage, the request has raised the prospect of regulators wading into early-stage tech markets that until now have been beyond their reach.

Given their combined market value of more than 5.5tn dollars, rifling through such small deals -many of them much less prominent than Wunderlist and Sunrise might seem beside the point. Between them, the five companies (Apple, Microsoft, Google, Amazon and Facebook) have spent an average of only 3.4bn dollars a year on sub-1bn dollars acquisitions over the past five years a drop in the ocean compared with their massive financial reserves, and the more than$130bn of venture capital that was invested in the US last year.

However, critics say that the big companies use such deals to buy their most threatening potential competitors before their businesses have a chance to gain momentum, in some cases as part of a “buy and kill” tactic to simply close them down.

 

31.What is true about Wunderlist and Sunrise after their acquisitions?

ATheir market values declined

BTheir engineers were retained 

CTheir tech features improved

DTheir products were re-priced

 

32. Microsoft's critics believe that the big tech companies tend to __________.

Aexaggerate their product quality

Btreat new tech talent unfairly

Celiminate their potential competitors 

Dignore public opinions

 

33. Paul Arnold is concerned that small acquisitions might__________.

Aweaken big tech companies

Bworse market competition

Cdiscourage start up investors

Dharm the notional economy 

 

34. The US Federal Trade Commission intends to__________.

Asupervise start-up's operations

Bencourage research collaboration

Climit Big Tech's expansion

Dexamine small acquisitions 

 

35. For the five biggest tech companies, their small acquisitions have_________.

Araised few management challenges

Bbrought little financial pressure 

Cset an example for future deals

Dgenerated considerable profits

 

Text 4

  We're fairly good at judging people based on first impressions, thin slices of experience ranging from a glimpse of a photo to a five-minute interaction, and deliberation can be not only extraneous but intrusive. In one study of the ability, she dubbed "thin slicing,"the late psychologist Nalini Ambady asked participants to watch silent 10-second video clips of professors and to rate the instructor's overall effectiveness. Their ratings correlated strongly with students' end-of-semester ratings. Another set of participants had to count backward fro1,000 by nines as they watched the clips, occupying their conscious working memory. Their ratings were just as accurate, demonstrating the intuitive nature of the social processing.

Critically, another group was asked to spend a minute writing down reasons for their judgment, before giving the rating. Accuracy dropped dramatically. Ambady suspected that deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cue such as certain gestures or utterances, rather than letting the complex interplay of subtle signals form a holistic impression. She found similar interference when participants watched 15-second clips of pairs of people and judged whether they were strangers, friends, or dating partners.

Other research shows we're better at detecting deception and sexual orientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection. "It's as if you're driving a stick shift," says Judith Hall, a psychologist at Northeastern University,"and if you start thinking about it too much,you can't remember what you're doing. But if you go on automatic pilot, you're fine. Much our social life is like that."

Thinking too much can also harm our ability to form preferences. College students' ratings of strawberry jams and college courses aligned better wit experts' opinions when the students weren't asked to analyze their rationale. And people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more personally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than on detail but only if the decision was complex-when they had a lot of information to process.

Intuition's special powers are unleashed only in certain circumstances. In on study, participants completed a battery of eight tasks, including four that tapped reflective thinking (discerning rules, comprehending vocabulary) and four that tapped intuition and creativity (generating new products or figures of speech).Then they rated the degree to which they had used intuition("gut feelings,""hunches," "my heart"). Use of their gut hurt their performance on the first four tasks, as expected, and helped them on the rest. Sometimes the heart is smarter than the head.

 

36Nalini Ambaby's study deals with_____

A. instructor-student reaction

B. the power of people's memory

C. the reliability of first impression 

D. people's ability to influence others

 

37. In Ambaby's study, rating accuracy dropped when participants__.

A . gave the rating in limited time

B. focused on specific details

C.watched shorted video clips

D.discussed with on another

 

38. Judith Hall mentions driving to mention__.

A.memory can be selective

B.reflection can be distracting

C.social skills must be cultivated

D.deception is difficult to detect

 

39. When you are making complex decisions, it is advisable to____.

A.follow your feelings 

B.list your preferences

C.seek expert advice

D.collect enough data 

 

40. What can be learned from the last paragraph?

A. Generating new products takes time

B.Intuition may affect reflective tasks

C.Vocabulary comprehension needs creativity

D.Objective thinking may boost intuitiveness

=

Section III Translation

Part B

Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text, choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45). There are two extra headings. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.10 points

A.  Stay calm

B.  Stay humble

C.  Decide whether to wait

D.  Be realistic about the risks

E.  Don’t make judgments

F.  Identify a shared goal

G.  Ask permission to disagree


How to Disagree with Someone More Powerful than You

Your boss proposes a new initiative you think won’t work. Your senior colleague outlines a project timeline you think is unrealistic. What do you say when you disagree with someone who has more power than you do? How do you decide whether it’s worth speaking up? And if you do, what exactly should you say?

41. ________C____________
You may decide it’s best to hold off on voicing your opinion. Maybe “you haven’t finished thinking the problem through, the whole discussion was a surprise to you, or you want to get a clearer sense of what the group thinks,” says Weeks. “If you think other people are going to disagree too, you might want to gather your army first. People can contribute experience or information to your thinking — all the things that would make the disagreement stronger or more valid.” It’s also a good idea to delay the conversation if you’re in a meeting or other public space. Discussing the issue in private will make the powerful person feel less threatened.

42. _______F_____________
 Before you share your thoughts, think about what the powerful person cares about — it may be “the credibility of their team or getting a project done on time,” says Grenny. You’re more likely to be heard if you can connect your disagreement to a “higher purpose.” When you do speak up, don’t assume the link will be clear. You’ll want to state it overtly, contextualizing your statements so that you’re seen not as a disagreeable underling but as a colleague who’s trying to advance a shared goal. The discussion will then become “more like a chess game than a boxing match,” says Weeks.

43. ______G______________
This step may sound overly deferential, but, according to Grenny, it’s a smart way to give the powerful person “psychological safety” and control. You can say something like, “I know we seem to be moving toward a first-quarter commitment here. I have reasons to think that won’t work. I’d like to lay out my reasoning. Would that be OK?” This gives the person a choice, “allowing them to verbally opt in,” says Grenny. And, assuming they say yes, it will make you feel more confident about voicing your disagreement.

44. _______A_____________
You might feel your heart racing or your face turning red, but do whatever you can to remain neutral in both your words and actions. When your body language communicates reluctance or anxiety, it undercuts the message, Weeks says. It sends “a mixed message, and your counterpart gets to choose what to read,” she explains. Deep breaths can help, as can speaking more slowly and deliberately. “When we feel panicky we tend to talk louder and faster. You don’t want to be mousey or talk in a whisper, but simply slowing the pace and talking in an even tone helps calm the other person down and does the same for you,” says Grenny. It also makes you seem confident, even if you aren’t.

45. ______B______________
Emphasize that you’re offering your opinion, not “gospel truth,” says Grenny. “It may be a well-informed, well-researched opinion, but it’s still an opinion, [so] talk tentatively and slightly understate your confidence.” Instead of saying something like, “If we set an end-of-quarter deadline, we’ll never make it,” say, “This is just my opinion, but I don’t see how we will make that deadline.” Weeks suggests adding a lot of “guiding phrases” like “I’m thinking aloud here.” This will leave room for dialogue. Having asserted your position (as a position, not as a fact), “demonstrate equal curiosity about other views,” says Grenny. Remind the person that this is your point of view, and then invite critique. Weeks suggests trying something like, “Tell me where I’m wrong with this.” Be genuinely open to hearing other opinions.

 

 

Section IV  Translation

46. Directions: Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

We tend to think that friends and family members are our biggest sources of connection, laughter and warmth. While that may well be true, researchers have also recently found that interacting with strangers actually brings a boost in mood and feelings of belong that we didn't expect.

In our series of studies, researchers instructed Chicago area commuters using public transportation to strike up a conversation with someone near them. On average, participants who followed the instruction felt better than those who had been told to stand or sit in silence. The researchers also argued that when we shy away from casual interaction with strangers, it is often due to a misplaced anxiety that they might not want to talk to us. Much of the time, however, this belief is false. As it turns out, many people are actually perfectly willing to talk and may even be flattered to receive your attention.

Section IV  Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

Suppose you are organizing an online meeting. Write to Jack, an international student, to

(1) invite him to participate in the meeting, and

(2) tell him the details.

You should write about 100 words neatly on your ANSWER SHEET.

Do not sign your own name, use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write your address.10 points

 

Part B

48. Directions: 

In this section, you are asked to write an essay based on the following chart:

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

 

 

答案解析

Section I  Use of English

Directions:

1. However

解析逻辑关系题前一句提到为员工设定目标并不难与后一句much harder” 语义相反是转折关系故选however

2. emphasize

解析动词辨析题前一句说与工作相关的行为有很多因素成分后文说其余的可能会被扭曲因此此处应该选择只强调一个identify识别assess评价评估explain解析均不符合题意故选emphasize

3.  quickly

解析副词辨析题在伦敦乘坐公交车你很快就会发现这一理论在公交车司机身上的表现因此根据语义应选择quickly”表示自然而然的就能快速得出结果curiously好奇地eagerly好奇地nearly几乎均不符合题意

4. check

解析动词辨析题inspector检票员的工作就是检查prove证明, recall召回, claim声称均不符合题意故选check”

5. ignored

解析动词辨析题前文说检票员很少检出人们是否交钱所以后文提到跑着去赶车的人会被忽视threatened威胁mocked取笑blamed责备均不符合题意故选ignored”

6. punctuality

解析名词辨析题后面说到人们抱怨公交车总是晚点或班次少因此可以反推前一句表达的是目标是守时hospitality殷勤好客competition竞争比赛innovation创新均不符合题意,故选“punctuality”

7. So

解析逻辑关系题前文提到公交车总是晚点或班次少 ”的问题所以解决方式就是增加其数量故选so ”表因果关系

8. rewarded

解析动词辨析题or表示或者可前后连接两个相对的事物所以与punished惩罚相对的应该是奖励trained训练grouped组团hired雇佣均不符合题意故选rewarded”

9. also

解析副词辨析题前一句公交车司机们达到了这些目标后文but转折提到会撞到骑自行车的人说明可能会同时造成两个结果故选also”表示并列

10. revenue

解析名词辨析题根据后文more inspectors and more sensitive pricing”表示更多的检票员和更敏感的定价可以推测出与此相关的标准应该是收益comfort安慰efficiency效率security安全均不符合题意故选revenue”收益

11. cautious

解析形容词辨析题被修饰的名词是driver司机同时根据上半句提到的safety” 安全所以是小心谨慎的司机quiet安静的diligent勤劳的friendly友好的均不符合题意故选cautious”

12. problem

解析名词辨析题上文提到公交车司机为了达到规定的时间标准而引发的一些问题这里出现another”表明是另一个问题purpose目标prejudice偏见policy政策均不符合题意故选problem”

13. noticed

解析动词辨析题后文说晚一个小时出发仍能准时到达因此动词表示的是是否有注意到过这样的现象revealed揭示admitted承认reported报告均不符合题意故选noticed”

14. trip

解析名词辨析题本句中的airlines”表示航空公司所以是改变航班需要的时间故选trip”

15. background

解析名词辨析题前文是举具体例子后文写抽象内容因此应选理论层面的background”背景

16. sacrifice

解析动词辨析题上文提到大多数的工作都是有很多标准的但是选择了一个那么就要去怎么样其余的因此根据语义需选择放弃或牺牲criticize批评tolerate容忍interpret解释均不符合题意故选sacrifice”

17. cost

解析名词辨析题前一句说所有事都可以做的很快本句but转折因此本句语义是负向secret秘密product产品task任务均不符合题意故选cost”成本

18. relating to

解析固定搭配空前说很多标准空后说重要的因素因此是同一类relate to固定搭配表示与之相关符合题意

19. specify

解析动词辨析not only,but also并列结构所以要和understand”构成并列同时空后承接的名词是“one or even two dimensions of the objective”一到两个目标纬度因此specify列举符合题意

20. achieve

解析动词辨析题空后承接的宾语名词为objective”目标根据语义搭配achieve实现符合题意

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1

21. A an urgent demand for new job skills

解析细节题根据题干定位词World Economic Forum定位到原文第一段倒数第二句话Research by the World Economic Fortune finds that on average 42 percent of the"core skills" within job roles will change by 2022.表明工作角色中的42%的核心能力会在2022年有所改变因此选项“an urgent demand for new job skills对新的工作技能的迫切需求与原文句同义替换

22. D an alternative to the fire-hire strategy

解析细节题根据题干AT&T 定位原文第二段第四句AT&T is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy.表明AT&T通常被视为公司的黄金标准该公司决定实施大规模的再培训计划而不是采取解雇和聘用战略可知an alternative to the fire-hire strategy是解雇雇佣政策的另一种选择

23. A have appeared to be insufficient

解析细节题根据题干可定位到第二段最后一句话Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers...加拿大其他地区的努力是缓慢的在失业率高的地区会经常听到雇主祈求工人因此可知在解决技能不匹配的问题加拿大的努力的不够的故选A have appeared to be insufficient

24. D a lack of medical workers

解析段落推断题段落末句In the medical field, to take an obvious example, the pandemic meant that there were still clear shortages of doctors,nurses and other medical personnel.在医疗领域举一个明显的例子医生护士和其他医务人员的短缺仍然明显故选D a lack of medical workers

25. C prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs

解析细节题根据题干Scandinavian Airlines定位到末段倒数第二句话Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff.表明Scandinavian 航空公司决定启动一个短期的再培训计划重新培训被解雇的员工C“prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs为解雇的员工提供其他工作是原文的同义替换

 

Text 2

26. D contribute to the nation's well-being

解析细节推断题根据题干定位词self-sufficient定位到原文第二段末句A move back to self-sufficiency, ..., would boost the farming industry, political sovereignty and even the nation’s health.”其自给自足可以给英国带来很多方面的好处,Dnation’s well-being为定位句的归纳总结

27. C most land is used for meat and dairy production

解析细节题。根据题干report by the University of Leeds 回文定位到第三段“85 percent of the country’s total land area is associated with meat and dairy production”, C项是本句的同义替换

28. C its natural conditions

解析细节推断题。根据题干中的crop-growing定位到第五段中“Just 25 percent of the country’s land is suitable for crop-growing...”全国只有25%的土地适合种植农作物...,不难发现英国农作物发展受限的原因是因为其适合性土地占比很少,是自然环境因素原因,C为正确答案。

29. A rely largely on imports for fresh produce

解析推断题。根据题干定位到末段,文中英国人食用的23%的果蔬是本土产出的,但尽管我们用尽所有的方法,我们只能满足我们30%新鲜农产品需求,可以得知英国人的果蔬需求不能仅仅依靠国内提供,大部分要依赖于进口,因此A为正确答案。

30. B doubtful

解析情感态度题。定位到末段,英国仅有23%的水果和蔬菜是本土种植的,因此即使采取最极端的措施,我们也只能满足30%的新鲜农产品需求。因此作者对英国能够实现自给自足是负向的故选“doubtful”怀疑的。

Text 3

31. B Their engineers were retained

解析细节题。根据题干Wunderlist and Sunrise定位原文第二段their teams of engineers stayed on因此B他们的工程师保留下来是原文句同义替换

32.C eliminate their potential competitors

解析细节题。根据题干Microsoft's critics定位原文第三段big tech to chew up any innovative companies…因此C消除他们潜在竞争对手是原文句同义替换其中eliminatechew up同义替换。

33.D harm the notional economy

解析细节推断题。根据题干Paul Arnold定位原文第四段 “I think these things are good for me, if I out my selfish hat on. But are they good for the American economy? I don’t know”,可见Arnold关心的是小型收购可能会伤害美国的经济,因此D为正确答案。

34. D examine small acquisitions

解析细节题。根据题干The US Federal Trade Commission定位原文第五段“The US Federal Trade Commission says it wants to find the answer to that question. This week, it asked the five most valuable US tech companies for information about their many small acquisitions over the past decade.”美国联邦贸易委员会表示希望找到这个问题的答案。本周,该机构向美国市值最高的5家科技公司询问了它们在过去10年进行的许多小型收购的相关信息,可见,美国联邦贸易委员会打算检查小型收购。因此D为正确答案。

35. B brought little financial pressure

解析细节推断题。根据题干the five biggest tech companies定位原文第六段“the five companies…have spent an average of only $3.4 bn a year on sub-$1 bn acquisitions over the past five years——a drop in the ocean compared with their massive financial reserves, and the more than $130 bn of venture capital that was invested in the US last year”过去5年,这5家公司平均每年仅花费34亿美元进行不到10亿美元的收购——与它们庞大的财务储备以及去年在美国投资的逾1300亿美元风险资本相比,这只是沧海一粟,可见对于这五个大型科技公司,他们的小型收购带来的财务压力很小,因此B为正确答案。

Text 4

36. C the reliability of first impression

解析细节推断题根据题干Nalini Ambaby定位原文首段第二句根据定位句In one study of the ability, she dubbed...可知本句是对研究内容的具体描述题干是问的是Nalini Ambaby的研究解决的是什么因此要去往上文追踪研究的宏观层面故首句We're fairly good at judging people based on first impressions第一印象的可靠性即是本研究的对象故选C the reliability of first impression

37.B focused on specific details

解析细节题根据定位词 rating accuracy dropped定位原文二段第二句Accuracy dropped dramatically. Ambady suspected that deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cue such as certain gestures or utterances.表明集中思考在生动但有误导性的暗示上比如手势和话语正确选项中用specific替换“vivid but misleading cue”故选B focused on specific details

38. B reflection can be distracting

解析例证题题干问的是Judith Halldrving”来显示什么因此例证题要追溯到前文找论点故定位到上一句“Other research shows we're better at detecting deception and sexual orientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection.表明当我们依靠直觉而不是反思时,我们更善于发现欺骗因此反思并不是作者提倡的B reflection can be distracting反思可能是令人分心的是正确选项

39. A follow your feelings

解析细节题根据题干complex decisions定位到原文四段末句“And people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more personally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than...”表明当人们被要求关注自己的感受而不是细节时,人们做出的购车决策客观上更好,也更能让人个人满意,因此A follow your feelings是原句同义替换

40. B Intuition may affect reflective tasks

解析推断题作者先说了利用反思性思维去处理规则和词汇然后利用直觉和创造力生产新产品所以可以排除CDA选项全文未提文章第四句“Use of their gut hurt their performance on the first four tasks”表明直觉会伤害之前四个任务的表现gut做形容词时有本质的直觉的意思因此B Intuition may affect reflective tasks直觉可能会影响任务是原文的同义替换

 

Part B

41. C  Decide whether to wait

解析本段第一句You may decide it’s best to hold off on voicing your opinion. ”你可能会决定最好推迟发表自己的意见点名段落主旨接着段中...you might want to gather your army first. People can contribute experience or information to your thinking — all the things that would make the disagreement stronger or more valid.”进一步解释等待的原因等待可以召集你的队友他们可能给你带来一些经验或者信息所有这些都会让你的异议变得更有说服力故选C Decide whether to wait决定是否等待

42. F  Identify a shared goal

解析本段第一句 “Before you share your thoughts, think about what the powerful person cares about ...”表明在分享你的想法之前你要想想那个有权利的人会关心什么以及“You’re more likely to be heard if you can connect your disagreement to a “higher purpose.”如果你能把自己的异议和更高的目标联系起来你的意见更有可能被听到因此F Identify a shared goal确定一个共同的目标符合题意

43. G  Ask permission to disagree

解析本段最后一句点明主旨“And, assuming they say yes, it will make you feel more confident about voicing your disagreement. ”假设他们说可以你会更有信心说出你的不同意见因此G Ask permission to disagree征求异议的同意正确

44. A  Stay calm

解析本段第一句点明主旨“You might feel your heart racing or your face turning red, but do whatever you can to remain neutral in both your words and actions.你可能会感到心跳加速或者脸红但要尽你所能在言行上做到不露声色因此A Stay calm保持镇定符合主旨

45. B  Stay humble

解析文章“Remind the person that this is your point of view, and then invite critique”提醒对方这是你的观点然后请对方批评你点明段落大意以及文章最后一句“Be genuinely open to hearing other opinions.”“真诚地听取别人意见扣题因此可推测本段与谦虚相关因此B Stay humble保持谦虚符合主旨

 

 

Section III Translation

46.

我们通常认为朋友和家人是我们交流,快乐和温暖的重要源泉。虽然这很可能是正确的但研究人员最近发现与陌生人交流可以改善情绪并找到出乎预料的情感归属。

在一系列研究中,研究人员建议安排芝加哥地区的通勤人员可以借助乘坐公共交通工具身边的人交流。平均而言 那些听从指示与人交流的参与者比那些被告知独自站立或静坐的人感觉要好的多。研究人员还认为当我们羞涩于与陌生人的日常交流时,往往因为一种错位的焦虑,即他们可能不想和我们说话。然而,很多时候,这种观点是错误的。事实证明,许多人实际上非常愿意交谈——甚至可能会因为得到你的关注而受宠若惊。

 

Section IV  Translation

Part A

47.【参考范文】

Dear Jack,

I’m writing this letter to invite you to participate in an online meeting, which will be held on September 15 at our university.

Considering we are all faced with the Covid-19 all over the world, we would like to invite you to attend the online meeting instead. We organize this meeting to provide a chance for the students in our school to get the latest news about the situation of Covid-19 as well as some protective measures. It would be wonderful if you could give a 10-minute talk about your opinion.

We would be very grateful if you could inform us of your decision before September 11. I am looking forward to a favorable reply at your earliest convenience.

 

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

 

Part B

48.【参考范文】

It goes without saying that the chart records a survey on the methods of exercise among citizens in certain city. As is clearly reflected by the chart, doing exercise alone occupies the percentage of 54,3%, which is followed by 47.7%, 23.9% and 5.8% of exercising with friends, families and groups. Obviously, the inclinations, clearly reflected by the chart, should be given more consideration.

Theoretically, several reasons may trigger that trend, but for my part, the following two are of utmost importance. On the top of list is that with the promotion of individuals’ awareness of keeping healthy, people are more likely to attach importance to physical health by doing some outdoor exercises in the daily life. In addition, there is the other point that no one can ignore. It is a widely accepted wisdom that owing to increasing pressure in the busy life, numerous individuals are inclined to arrange their exercise according their own time, which makes it impossible to make an appointment with friends or join a group to do physical exercise.

According to the above analysis, the increasing trend is bound to continue for some time in the future. And it is predictable that physical exercise will undoubtedly be prevalent in the years ahead.

 



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